Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Marketing Research for Management and Consumers Behaviour. Answer: Technological forces Process Delivery is moving towards online which is becoming more of an immerse learning experience face-to-face RTOs are embracing blended learning which involves mobile learning practices Online collaboration tools with cloud-support have been introduced to reduce cost pressure Social and cultural forces Place and Product Personal fulfilment of gaining job-specific skills contributes to demand School leavers need a bridge to enable them land a job Employees feel valued which boots their morale and retention Positive and encouraging attitude from family and workplace influences course participation Participation in skills development is directly linked to the level of job security and positive economic returns received by employees Challenging to reach students with special needs (e.g.; remotely located, disability, or culturally and linguistically diverse background, etc.) Legal framework Product access to public funds by private RTOs encourage student attraction 2.2 Customer base Consumer priorities, needs and preferences Impact on the marketing mix Non-governmental organizations The staff members of NGOs require courses at low prices but prefer standard quality courses Demand will increase for the courses as prices will be lower as compared to other competitors Corporate entities They are the ones which require premium courses with overall professional development of their employees and the courses need to be customized. Demand will increase of the product i.e. the courses as RTO is offering customized courses. Price will also get increased. Public Because of lack of organizational support, these people want to have career development courses so that they can further step up their career outside the workplace. Prices will b average, needs more promotions so that customers can attract. 2.3 Marketing mix variables Marketing objectives, Target market characteristics, Desired positioning Product Register this non-accredited program as a nationally recognized course Develop additional innovative and quality syllabus to increase the perceived value offer in the eye of the market Pricing Maintain premium pricing to enhance quality image except for non-governmental organisations, do not have discount offers as do not want to establish a pattern of regularly lowering prices Promotion Embed Online Live Chat support option to the website in order to support promoting the product from the website Increase the number of enquiries from the marketing communications activities by 15% Develop the Change Management Program with an innovative and cutting-edge outlook Build a solid customer base by delivering the product to industry giants Have a professional and engaging video production to generate publicity and create brand awareness towards the training program Support the opening of new premises across five states including NSW, VIC, SA, WA, and QLD Support the introduction of additional syllabuses Enrich the brand in a national scale cultivating the organisational image as the premier professional development course provider Finding of the niche communities in the industry who need change management practices as the nature of their business Showcase product features and benefits in national and local conferences Distribution Actively deliver the new Change Management Program in five states including NSW, VIC, SA, WA, and QLD Launch online course delivery (which is currently only face-to-face) Maintain percentage of customer complaints less than 5% reduce cost-of-delivery by 15% Service Variation Increase sales volume by 20% Increase overall market share by 15% of the market which provides change management related courses Achieve a minimum ROI of 20% Achieve 5% improvement in customer retention rates every year within the next five years Increase number of student enrolments by 10% in each site of delivery 2.4 Marketing mix variables Target Market 1 (NGOs) Target Market 2 (Corporate entities) Target Market 3 (Public) Product The course package offered to public clients is gold class The course package offered to public clients is platinum class The course package offered to public clients is silver class Pricing Provide courses at relatively low prices Premium Pricing Group discount offered Promotion Online live chat and videos Online live chat and videos Online live chat and videos Distribution Support the opening of new premises across five states including NSW, VIC, SA, WA, and QLD Actively deliver the new Change Management Program in five states including NSW, VIC, SA, WA, and QLD Support the opening of new premises across five states including NSW, VIC, SA, WA, and QLD Customer Service Level Customer Engagement Customer Engagement Customer Engagement Email and budget attached with the solution file Variance between planned and actual results Reach to Customers Estimated Actual Variance Total reach 8500 2453 5547 Leads 2000 321 1679 Customers 245 46 199 Promotional Activities Estimated Actual Variance Direct Mail 3.4% 4.8% 1.4% Email Marketing 4.8% 2.2% (2.6%) Organic Search 12.4% 23.4% 11% Website Traffic 30% 22.3% (7.7%) Networking 8.8% 6.2% (2.6%) Social Media 19.2% 23.2% 4% E-brochure 9.2% 6.9% (2.3%) Local Radio 12.2% 11% (1.2%) Total 100% 100% Causes of Variance in reach to customers There can be various reasons behind this variance such as people didnt find the courses matched to their needs, unable to opt for the course due to financial issues, dont have time to enroll or such courses etc. Causes of Variance in promotional activities There are various reasons behind this variance in promotional activities such as individuals have not checked their email on a regular basis, individuals dont have access over internet facility at that time, dont give much attention to promotional activities like e-brochure as other companies also send number of e-brochures for promotion and individuals do not prefer listening to local radio. Components for testing Marketing mix components Test Strategy Expected outcome Price Decreased prices Increased participants Place Change in distribution channels: Visiting the organizations Extended outreach of potential customers Promotion Discount offers Increased demand 3.2 Scenario Implications on consumer response Scenario 1: Decreased prices of the courses The individuals will find it competitive and will enroll themselves in the courses provided by the RTO and thus demand will increase. Scenario 2: Change in distribution channels: Visiting the organizations By visiting the organizations and making the employees understood about the various courses, there are huge chances that great customer response can be achieved for getting enrolled for the courses. Scenario 3: Discount offers for first 50 participants This will impact the individuals in such a way that they will try to opt for the courses on first come first serve basis as only first 50 participants will get the benefit so participants will try to enroll them fast. 3.3 Marketing mix variables Target Market 1 (NGOs) Target Market 2 (Corporate Entities) Target Market 3 (Public) Product Gold class Platinum class Silver class Pricing Diminish the prices from $5,250 to $4,750 Diminish the prices from $11,600 to $10,600 per member Diminish the prices from $7, 800 to $7,000 Promotion No discount offers as prices are already diminished Discount offers of 20% to first 50 participants Discount offers of 15% to first 50 participants Distribution No visits needed Visiting to large companies Visiting to medium and SMEs Customer Service Level Customer engagement Customer engagement Customer engagement In excel sheet. In excel sheet (only budget of Quarter 3 and 4 are re-adjusted) Marketing mix variables Target Market 1 Target Market 2 Target Market 3 Product Gold class Platinum class Silver class Pricing Increase prices from $5,250 to $5,500 Increase prices from $11,600 to $12,000 Increase prices from $7, 800 to $8,200 Promotion No discount offers as prices are already diminished Discount offers of 20% to first 50 participants Discount offers of 15% to first 50 participants Distribution No visits needed Visits to public companies No visit needed Customer Service Level Customer engagement Customer engagement Customer engagement References: Aaker, D.A., Kumar, V. and Day, G.S., 2008.Marketing research. John Wiley Sons. Constantinides, E., 2006. The marketing mix revisited: towards the 21st century marketing.Journal of marketing management,22(3-4), pp.407-438. Noble, P.M. and Gruca, T.S., 1999. Industrial pricing: Theory and managerial practice.Marketing science,18(3), pp.435-454. Sashi, C.M., 2012. Customer engagement, buyer-seller relationships, and social media.Management decision,50(2), pp.253-272. Solomon, M., Russell-Bennett, R. and Previte, J., 2012. Consumer behaviour. Pearson Higher Education AU.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Historically, black employees have many times been sidelined from various institutions based on the unwarranted focus on their color as the more Ã¢â¬Ëweaker and primitiveÃ¢â¬â¢ race. This discrimination has also been tagged speciously on the general Ã¢â¬Ëblack cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ towards any credibility in the work place.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Racial Discrimination at the World Bank specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Black workers have unjustifiably been presumed to be only Ã¢â¬ËfitÃ¢â¬â¢ as subordinate employees and could almost certainly raise eyebrows in the workplace whenever spotted in a relevant senior position. Racial discrimination is not only an historical American problem in the workplace, but it is now a global issue which has taken root in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude from different perspectives. However, since the passage of various Civil Rights Acts around the world, most companie s and organizational entities now seek multicultural populations by looking for the leverage of talented leaders in order to meet their respective objectives. By doing this, they hope that these leaders will help them comprehend on how to appeal and get in touch with these populations since diversity is quickly becoming a business imperative for most organizations (Moreno 5). This has also led to the implementation of various policies and programs that will enhance the recruitment, growth, and advancement processes for Ã¢â¬Ëpeople of colorÃ¢â¬â¢ especially within the organizational structures. Such steps have seen major conglomerates such as Aetna, Avon products, American Express, PepsiCo, and many others around the world being led by people of color. However, despite these signs of corporate improvement in diversifying personnel and promoting workers without a regard to their race or color, black employees are still struggling to surmount the effects of racism in the workplace since white employees are still governing most of these multinational corporations. In addition, leveraging on an employee in a diverse population always end up with a particular race being victimized through work termination as employers tend to match the contact race of an employee to that of the customer (Clark 4) The persistent reports and complaints on race discrimination is just an indication that although major corporations may not be carrying out palpable racism any more, other subtle contours of racism have quickly mounted to the platform to further make it increasingly harder to eradicate. Modern day racism can emerge in organizations especially when a legitimate authority figure gives out a business directive that will eventually initiate discriminatory actions.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Racism can also take an aversive shape in a way that makes peo ple embrace significant egalitarian values and distinguish themselves not to be prejudiced while having a cataleptic negative feelings and beliefs regarding black people (Clark 3). In other words, aversive racism allows people to uphold their self-image as unbiased and a person of color would usually be more apt not to receive the benefit of the doubt from a white recruiter in an aversive racism scenario in a job recruitment exercise. Additionally, aversive racism occurs if a prerequisite that complies with a particular decisive factor operates to encumber the constitutional equality rights of any racial group member. Although this definition may not confine itself to circumstances where a particular principle has an undesirable impact on the people of color, it does have an unpleasant impact that would fall within the conceptual obstruction of the equality rights being enjoyed by members of any racial group of their fundamental human rights. Racial discrimination can usually be har assment in the form of negative slurs, epithets, intimidation, stereotyping and stigmatization, threats, innuendoes, or even cultural and jokes which eventually leads to one being denied access to equal opportunities in relation to employment or career-growth (Moreno 8). A racial bias environment also creates and tolerates a hostile or distasteful working condition which impedes oneÃ¢â¬â¢s work performance while adversely affecting their employment and career opportunities. It also manipulates Human Resource decisions to be made on a basis that does not look upon the professional qualifications or merit which would later affect a staff memberÃ¢â¬â¢s career in relation to salary, assignments or re-assignments, grade setting, performance reviews, merit augmentations, rewards, promotions or even recognition (GAP 8). Either overtly or covertly, these behaviors generally constitute to discrimination which makes the present Human Resource practice even more challenging if not audaciou s enough. Human resource managers and professionals are regularly given the responsibility of developing, conversing, and implementing designed policies that will ensure a discrimination-free workplace with the impartial selection and promotion of employees. Although this procedure should have a prioritized prevalence on ones abilities, skills, and accomplishments, some conflicts usually do arise between a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s adopted policy on diversity commitment and its undertakings when faced with the harsh reality of diversity. Therefore, this becomes even more perceptible with the changing alignments in Human Resource Management (HRM) strategies and internal practices that are in liaison with an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goal in order to effectively implement a business strategy.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Racial Discrimination at the World Bank specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As HRM is now taking a global outlook to address financial, logistical, and personal concerns in its activities and structures, a high level of racism and reluctance is usually observed in the acceptance of these vital assignments by some prospective expatriates. Most organizational HRM policies are still being influenced by historical, social, and environmental trends to significantly alter its policies for a person of color to gain justice or even promotion into management. The incessant difficulties that most corporations do experience while adapting a global strategy, culture, or even the administrative customs of either the foreign mother company or the host country only shows that the apple doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fall far from the tree. It also demonstrates that the more traditional homogeneous and mono-cultural organizations are no longer effective in the increasingly globalized marketplace. Through a case study, we are going to focus on the unfortunate illegal effects of racial discrimination on HRM poli cies since it eventually affects the competitive status of a seniority system towards the provision of personnel decisions, promotions, layoffs, and transfers. A Case Study on the Discrimination of Black Employees at the World Bank The World Bank is a premier international development institution that annually lends billions of dollars to African, Asian, European, Latin America, and Caribbean countries. Such an enormous and effective development lending usually depends on the precise comprehension of the challenges being faced by the populace in different cultures, since it will help to better design programs and policy solutions that represents conditions and available possibilities (GAP 7). Therefore, the Bank tries hard to include a diverse work force in order to enrich its talent base and also reflect its international membership that comprises 166 countries. This kind of diversity is quite important in bringing a wide variety of perspectives that tolerates the organizationÃ¢â¬ â¢s objective on poverty reduction. However, although the Bank has always maintained that they are committed to diversity beyond the hiring process, it has continuously been accused of racial prejudice in its promotion, retention, and recruitment practices since its inception (Chima and Wharton 3). A Washington Post article written by William Raspberry over more than thirty years ago also confirms this primordial level of racism that is mainly directed to black employees who are also very few at the Bank (Livingston online). In addition, a diminutive opportunity for rising mobility did exist for those who were not working there.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the time of its publication, the article further adds that no black divisional chiefs were to be found out of the 160 employees scattered all over the Bank. Although Randall Robinson, a former executive director of Transafrica rubbished these figures, there is a continuous infraction involving the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s rhetoric on diversity and its actual practices. This is further elaborated in a recent report by the Government Accountability Project (GAP) on racial discrimination at the Bank. A Report on Racial Discrimination of Black Employees at the World Bank Although there have been numerous reports of discrimination at the Bank, a 2009 GAP report on the same issue proved to be stupendous. The comprehensive but intimidating report stated that the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s structures and practices proved futile in retaining and staffing people with an African or black origin. The report also says that black Americans are predominantly underrepresented at the Bank as only four black Americans he ld proficient positions amongst a staff which has over 3,500 professional. This still shows a comparative decline in representation from the appalling levels stated in RaspberryÃ¢â¬â¢s report more than thirty years ago(Livingston online). Furthermore, data collected from the Bank also showed that professional black employees working on the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s operations were inexplicably narrowed-down to positions in the African region. The BankÃ¢â¬â¢s situation on this issue is quite daunting since they do not regularly gather any data with the allusion of racial identity which further makes racial disparity patterns seem exceedingly imperceptible. Even though through passports the Bank may boast a database of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s demographic information, it does not obliterate the fact that most whites who have an African origin are given high positions while most African- Americans are still hold low-ranking positions in the Bank (G.A.P 7-8). The World Bank recruitment and promotion i mplementation processes have customarily escaped public scrutiny until recently mainly due to the protection from the U.S. affirmative action and equality statutes, in addition to the exempted requirements of comparable legislation designed to encourage inclusiveness in the countries they operate in. The World Bank is usually held accountable to an internal judicial system which is similar with most intercontinental institutions that are exempted from national laws. This Ã¢â¬Ëjudicial disguiseÃ¢â¬â¢ may question the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s intent and capability in addressing racial prejudice especially when it is brought about by failures in its structural systems. This is also asserted in the GAP report as it revealed that the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s internal administrative complaint structures and processes did not meet the required stipulations in handling racial injustices (G.A.P 8). Although it seems that some meaningful measures have been taken by the Bank, many employees are still concerned with the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s justice system capability of fairly reviewing cases concerning racial bias (Livingston online). Interviews with former employees, disgruntled employees, and sitting staff members in the GAP report also reveals that a significant number thought that the Human Resources decisions was capricious and lacked transparency due to the employment process being left almost entirely to direct supervisors. Although there is an unusual large number of American staff due to the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarters being in the U.S, the limitation and absence of a black American workforce is quite striking. Most African-Americans also believe that the Bank pays no heed to traditional black educational institutes in the U.S while also being recruited less than other people of black origin (G.A.P 8). This simply translates into Africans, African-American, and those of black decent being denied their career aspirations and opportunities while being treated inequitably on the foundation o f their skin color. This problem is undeniably serious as it destabilizes personnel morale and performance while it lowers productivity and the much needed effectiveness within the Bank (Livingston online). This is also supported by the GAP report in which staff who originated from the African Sub-Saharan region thought that the ingrained discrimination and stereotypes impinged on their career right from the recruitment process. They also reiterate that there was a low entry-level grade set for black employees which is comparable to other staff with equal qualifications and if selected, they spend too much time at each level of grade than those employees who are not black. Even if they Ã¢â¬ËsurviveÃ¢â¬â¢ the recruitment process, black employees would still find out that securing a work reassignment to a dissimilar position is a thorny issue, especially if itÃ¢â¬â¢s of a high hierarchy(Chima and Wharton 10). Their situation is even made worse with the lack of support from the H RM department or managers in the event they attempt to leave the Africa department. This evidently contradicts the promotion of most black staff members even though their work performance calls for it and instead, they undergo through an impractical standard of a work evaluation process which intentionally lowers their performance reviews with a demotion intention if they were to question the process at all. This makes most black employees to walk out on the Bank if they thought they have been biased upon in a promotion verdict since also the HR personnel usually reiterates the thought of them leaving especially if they despised the way the Bank treated them ( G.A.P 12). Most black employees assert that the HR Department is usually familiar with the ongoing discrimination being levied upon them, but took little measures towards preventing or mitigating it. Their hopes for a fair look into the injustices are frequently being dampened due to the fact that black employees are underrepr esented in both the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s middle and upper levels of management, which means that a few of them will have the authority of challenging potential bigoted actions by personnel in regards to assignments, promotions, and rotations (Chima and Wharton 15). This level of under-representation leads to an apparent lack of Ã¢â¬Ëblack mentorshipÃ¢â¬â¢ which eventually results to the lack of support in tackling racial inequalities. The dire situation on racism in the organization was also to the open after the GAP released its findings when racial slurs aimed at black employees were written on the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s hall way walls despite any official announcement on the issue being made. Racial Diversity Strategies taken by the World Bank Together with being spurred by the GAP report, the World Bank has implemented some highly discernible measures towards raising awareness on the issue in recent years. In order to eradicate racial discontent, the Bank established a Racial Equality progr am that would oversee complaints of prejudice and also putting up new laws on the agenda that will help curb the racial menace. The Bank has also formed an office for a Diversity Program which all employees are entitled to while also assembling a task force for this purpose (G.A.P 15). While professing a zero-tolerance policy towards racial discrimination and also approving an anti-harassment policy, the Bank is keen on seeing that no form of inequity goes unnoticed. However, the laws, procedures, and the implementation process which exemplify the proscription of racial discrimination are somewhat delayed and the crucial measures which will improve the preservation of black employees are desirably absent (G.A.P 4). Despite this set-back, the Bank has laid down some departmental diversity targets that seek to improve and scrutinize the recruitment and promotion processes and decisions. The Bank also has an inclusion strategy through the formation of the Diversity and Inclusion Leader ship Awards and Diversity Compacts in all VP Management Teams in order to achieve a demographic and numerically diversified workplace. These programs are also aimed at providing peer-level resources to employees who undergo through discrimination, harassment, or any other depressing behaviors in the workplace (G.A.P 4). Also by enlisting businesses owned by minority groups into its internal procurement system, the Bank seeks to bridge the racial gap and uncertainty which has historically been ominous. Also by legislating new rules in both its Primary and Persuasive law sources, the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s administrative tribunal has been able to make an impact on decisions and rulings that involves racial discrimination and when deciding on issues from time to time, the Tribunal Judges can seek help from outside organizations which have comparable statures. However, the World Bank is still struggling with the implementation of these measures (G.A.P 15). Summary This case study is not aimed at demonizing any racial group or organization but to highlight the appalling levels of racism which is still prevalent in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Racial discrimination is now become a predominant factor in HRM operations which has led to an ample view by potential black employees that their dreams, work, and merits would not be counted in a diverse workplace. It also reveals how the issue of racial diversity can bring a dilemma for the people of the black race who are not traditional beneficiaries of corporate privileges and therefore have to differently negotiate their way up into the corporate thicketed seniority positions. In trying to deal with the issue of racial diversity and equity in professional responsibilities, an overhaul is largely needed within an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s structures. However, in some cases, this would also mean reasonable surmises that will severely affect a particular racial group which in this case was people with a black origin who are still privy to co rporate actions within HRM as they themselves as subjected to racism that is supposed to be alleviated by the diversity policies within the corporate. Black employees usually exist on the sidelines of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s power structures to possess neither race nor any high-ranking status. They are understudied in various academic researches relating to corporate issues where they have occasional being referred to be in a Ã¢â¬Ëcorporate ghetto-hoodÃ¢â¬â¢ that assigns them responsibilities concerning diversity. The main purpose of this case study was to describe how hard it is for most black employees to negotiate diversity issues in a system that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t let them do so but would rather conceal this unfortunate behavior while trying to manage it behind corporate boardrooms. This indicates that most victims of racial discrimination are usually left to work without a corporate commitment to diversity while forlornly negotiating racism and dealing with isolation in an alre ady hostile environment. Conclusion Although the past thirty years has seen major efforts being made by the World Bank in studying and putting in place measures that will help eradicate racial discrimination, these steps will prove ineffective if its internal justice system is still failing to support those people who have who have undergone through racial discrimination and also penalizing the offenders who harass and discriminate. The failure to enforce these set measures effectively will only see even the most progressive anti-racism and diversity policies been seen to be only cosmetic. Since the Bank represents diverse regions and cultures, this should also be seen in their staff instead of handling with rhetoric that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense if appropriate an action is not taken for discriminatory conducts and allegations brought by past and recent black employees and job candidates are not sufficiently examined. Works Cited Chima, Felix, and Wharton, William. African Americans and the Workplace: Overview of Persistent Discrimination. Web. Clark, Donna. Discrimination Happens Without Effort: How Black Women Human Resources Managers Negotiate Diversity Issues in a Corporation. Web. Ã¢â¬Å"Government Accountability ProjectÃ¢â¬Å". Web. Livingston, Greg. World Bank doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t practice what it Preaches. Web. Moreno, Paul. Black Americans and organized labor: A new history. Louisiana, LSU Press, 2006. Print. This research paper on Racial Discrimination at the World Bank was written and submitted by user Parker J. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Capital Punishment5 essays How do you feel about the saying, an eye for an eye? Do you feel that it is a good saying to run a nation by? Or do you agree with Gandhi who added to that statement, and everyone is blind? There have been many controversies in the history of the United States, ranging from abortion to gun control; however, capital punishment has been one of the most hotly contested issues in recent decades. Capital Punishment is the execution of a criminal pursuant to a sentence of death imposed by a competent court. It is not intended to inflict any physical pain or any torture; it is only another form of punishment. This form of punishment is irrevocable because it removes those punished from society permanently, instead of temporarily imprisoning them, this is the best and most effective way to deal with criminals. The usual alternative to the death penalty is life-long imprisonment. Capital punishment is a method of retributive punishment as old as civilization itself. The death penalty has been imposed throughout history for many crimes, ranging from blasphemy and treason to petty theft and murder. Many ancient societies accepted the idea that certain crimes deserved capital punishment. Ancient Roman and Mosaic Law endorsed the notion of retaliation; they believed in the rule of an eye for an eye. Similarly, the ancient Egyptians, Assyrians, and Greeks all executed citizens for a variety of crimes. The most famous people who were executed were Socrates (Saunders 462) and Jesus. Only in England, during the reigns of King Canute (1016-1035; Hoyt 151) and William the Conqueror (1066-1087; Miller 259) was the death penalty not used, although the results of interrogation and torture were often fatal. Later, Britain reinstated the death penalty and brought it to its American colonies. Although the death penalty was widely accepted throughout the early Unit ed States, not everyone approved of it. I...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Profile of Richard Kuklinski Richard Kuklinski was one of the most diabolical, and notorious, confessed contract killers in American history. He took the credit for over 200 murders while working for various mafia families, including the murder of Jimmy Hoffa. Because of his sheer number of kills, as well as his approach to killing, many believe he should be considered a serial killer. Kuklinskis Childhood Years Richard Leonard Kuklinski was born in the projects in Jersey City, New Jersey to Stanley and Anna Kuklinski. Stanley was a severely abusive alcoholic who beat his wife and children. Anna was also abusive to her children, sometimes beating them with broom handles. In 1940, Stanleys beatings resulted in the death of Kuklinskis old brother, Florian. Stanley and Anna hid the cause of the childs death from the authorities, saying he had fallen down a flight of steps. By the age of 10, Richard Kuklinski was filled with rage and began acting out. For fun, he would torture animals, and by the age of 14, he had committed his first murder. Taking a steel clothing rod from his closet, he ambushed Charlie Lane, a local bully, and leader of a small gang who had picked on him. Unintentionally he beat Lane to death. Kuklinski felt remorse for Lanes death for a brief period, but then saw it as a way to feel powerful and in control. He then went on and nearly beat to death the remaining six gang members. Early Adulthood By his early twenties, Kuklinski had earned the reputation as being an explosive, tough street hustler who would beat or kill those who he didnt like or who offended him. According to Kuklinski, it was during this time that his association with Roy DeMeo, a member of the Gambino Crime Family, was established. As his work with DeMeo advanced his ability to be an effective killing machine was recognized. According to Kuklinski, he became a favorite hitman for the mob, resulting in the deaths of at least 200 people. The use of cyanide poison became one of his favorite weapons as well as guns, knives, and chainsaws. Brutality and torture would often precede death for many of his victims. This included his description of causing his victims to bleed, then tying them up in rat-infested areas. The rats attracted to the smell of blood would eventually eat the men alive. The Family Man Barbara Pedrici saw Kuklinski as a sweet, giving man and the two married and had three children. Much like his father, Kuklinski, who was 6 4 and weighing over 300 pounds, began to beat and terrorize Barbara and the children. On the outside, however, the Kuklinski family was admired by neighbors and friends as being happy and well adjusted. The Beginning of the End Eventually, Kuklinski started making mistakes, and the New Jersey State Police were watching him. When three associates of Kuklinskis turned up dead, a task force was organized with the New Jersey authorities and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Special Agent Dominick Polifrone went undercover and spent a year, and a half-disguised as a hit man and eventually met and gained Kuklinskis trust. Kuklinski bragged to the agent about his proficiency with cyanide and boasted about freezing a corpse to mask his time of death. Afraid Polifrone would soon become another of Kuklinskis victims; the task force moved quickly after taping some of his confessions and getting him to agree to do a hit with Polifrone. On December 17, 1986, Kuklinski was arrested and charged with five counts of murder which involved two trials. He was found guilty in the first trial and reached an agreement in the second trial and was sentenced to two life sentences. He was sent to Trenton State Prison, where his brother was serving a life sentence for the rape and murder of a 13-year-old girl. Enjoying the Fame While in prison, he was interviewed by HBO for a documentary called The Iceman Confesses, then later by author Anthony Bruno, who wrote the book The Iceman as a follow-up to the documentary. In 2001, he was interviewed again by HBO for another documentary called The Iceman Tapes: Conversations With a Killer. It was during these interviews that Kuklinski confessed to several cold-blooded murders and spoke of his ability to detach himself emotionally from his own brutality. When on the subject of his family he uncharacteristically showed emotions when describing the love he felt towards them. Kuklinski Blames Childhood Abuse When asked why he had become one of the most diabolical mass murderers in history, he cast blame on his fathers abuse and admitted the one thing he was sorry for was for not killing him. Questionable Confessions Authorities do not buy everything Kuklinski claimed during the interviews. Witnesses for the government who were part of DeMeos group said Kuklinski was not involved in any murders for DeMeo. They also question the number of murders he claimed to have committed. His Suspicious Death On March 5, 2006, Kuklinski, age 70, died of unknown causes. His death came suspiciously around the same time he was scheduled to testify against Sammy Gravano. Kuklinski was going to testify that Gravano hired him to kill a police officer in the 1980s. Charges against Gravano were dropped after Kuklinskis death because of insufficient evidence. Kuklinski and the Hoffa Confession In April 2006, it was reported that Kuklinski had confessed to author Philip Carlo that he and four men had kidnapped and murdered union boss Jimmy Hoffa. In an interview aired on CNNs Larry King Live, Carlo discussed the confession in detail, explaining that Kuklinski was part of a five-member team. Under the direction of Tony Provenzano, a captain in the Genovese crime family, he kidnapped and murdered Hoffa in a restaurant parking lot in Detroit. Also on the program was Barbara Kuklinski and her daughters, who spoke about the abuse and fear they suffered at the hands of Kuklinski. There was one telling moment which described the true depth of Kuklinskis sociopathic brutality. One of the daughters, described as Kuklinskis favorite child, told of her fathers attempt to get her to understand, when she was 14, why if he killed Barbara during a fit of rage, he would also have to kill her and her brother and sister.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Cyber -Attacks on America - Essay Example These include voice communication systems, financial institutions and federal agencies among others. Whereas physical attacks would be carried out by hostile foreign nations and terrorists, cyber-attacks could be executed by a wide array of enemies including organized protest groups, terrorists, foreign states and even teenagers. Additionally, Lee (2013) observes the incapacity to protect all computer networks or cell phones or pagers from attack, especially now that 95% of these gadgets are operated and owned by the private sector. Therefore, America is increasingly vulnerable to cyber-attacks which grow by breadth and complexity, indicating the need for the country to continuously adopt and re-engineer its protection approaches that would uphold its cybersecurity. Cyber-attack refers to an attack originated from a computer system against another computer system or a website, aimed at altering, stealing or erasing information or have the functionality of the targeted computer system impeded or destroyed (Lee, 2013). A report on cybercrime documented recently by Hewlett-Packard indicates that the number of cyber-attacks have risen by 42% as compared to the year 2012 (Lau & Xia, 2013). Organizations get successfully attacked 102 times weekly with the annualized cost as a result of these cyber-attacks rising to $8.9 million per organization. Furthermore, it was indicated that security breaches by an organization could cost it up to 1% of its market value. Citing the examples of recent attacks on HSBC, the New York Stock Exchange and major commercial banks such as Citi Bank and Bank of America, PricewaterhouseCoopers, PWC (2013) appreciates cyber-attacks as a serious problem in America that needs critical intervention. Types of Cyber Attacks Cyber-attacks could occur in different ways. First, it could occur in form of exploits. As explained by Vatis (2002), this form of attack involves a sequence of commands, chunk of data or piece of software which takes advantag e of software bug to cause unanticipated or unintended reaction by the computer hardware, software or any piece of electronic. It normally includes denial of service, allowing privilege escalation or gaining control of the system. Secondly, the attack could take the form of eavesdropping where the attacker surreptitiously listens to private conversation. This could be done through the monitoring of faint electronic magnetic transmissions which get generated by the hardware. Moreover, attackers have penetrated even the most secure computer systems leveraging on the carelessness of authorized individuals or through deliberate deceit of such individuals. Lee (2013) refers to this as social engineering. Denial of service attacks are a unique approach to cyber-attacks. They are not used to control a system or gain unauthorized access, but rather render the system unusable. This could include multiple deliberate entry of a wrong password to lock the user or overloading the capability of a system or network so as to block it. Finally, direct access to a computer system could lead to the installation of devices that could compromise security, including modification of operating systems. It could also include downloading crucial information from the system (Brenner, 2010). Using this knowledge, cyber attackers have adopted varied approaches to executing
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Learning memoir - Essay Example Having a car and having no driving experience did not augur well with the way I perceived things, I became restless never imagining the weird state in which I was. A car owner without any driving training leave alone experience, it was soothing to imagine myself putting my palms on the steering wheel, just to think of stepping on the clutch, it was pleased to have this thoughts soon I became obsessed my mind was clogged with the fact of spinning the wheels. Everyday I could stand by my car looking at it by admiration. After many days of desire I contacted my driving tutor, Mr. Timothy who happened to be a good instructor not by anything tangible but by the way he placed his words in the name of coaching me. Then I came to realize that I was a good auditory learner, yes my coach Timothy inflicted this in me I could learn from nothing sort to that. No pens, no papers and no computers or electronic gadgets to put my references from. Ã¢â¬Å"Be attentive to the speed limitÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"make a full stop at every point with a stop signÃ¢â¬ . These words could reign on my mind every time I took to the road to train. These words were now frequently used by my coach Timothy I could now do the stopping without being reminded; I was a good observant of all the road rules. As an auditory learner I was expected to be attentive, keen and most importantly watch on how things transpired. When I completed my theory test which entailed listening and understanding the driving fundamental concepts it was a moment for my practical application for whatever I understood. Timothy and I took to the road, the training car was there waiting for us. It proved to be an up hill task for me to park a car to the back spot on a Z shape through reverse. I could not figure out the way this concept was coming about I tried at many times but to no avail it all ended in vain. It was
Sunday, November 17, 2019
John Calvin and the Protestant Reformation Essay This paper is devoted to the period of Protestant Reformation in France and the key figure of this process- John Calvin. John Calvin was a Protestant theologian and the developer of the famous Calvinism theology as a system of Christian church. He is well known for his written works and his teachings, but not many know about his role played in Michael ServetusÃ¢â¬â¢s execution. These and some other issues will be discussed in this research. John Calvin was born under the name of Jean Chauvin in Picardie, in France. His father sent him to Paris in 1523 to get ready for the priesthood. There Calvin studied in College de la Marche and then in College de Montaigu till 1528. As he was doing quite well in ecclesiastics, he gained the chaplaincy and the curacy of Saint Martin de Martheville from his native city (Tracy, 1999). In 1529 Calvin resigned chaplaincy for the benefit of his younger brother, but however two years later he resumed and was holding it till 1534 (Gordon, 2002). Calvin proved to be a good student, but his father, who by the year 1528 had problems in relations with the ecclesiastic authorities in Noyon, took a decision, that his son should study law instead. John didnÃ¢â¬â¢t argue and went to Orleans, to study law at the university there. In a year he moved to another university and took classes of Andrea Alciati. During his studies at both universities Calvin was very much under the impact of Melchior Wolmar, who was a leader of humanist ranks and was a supporter of Reformation ideas. When in 1531 the father of Calvin died, he had to come back to Paris and take up study of Hebrew. In 1532 John spent another year in Orleans as a student of law again. In spring of the same year he paid his own money for publishing the text of SenecaÃ¢â¬â¢s De Clementia, adding his commentary. This was a confirmation of his humanistic views in connection with the Roman Church. At the same time the ideas of Reformation were rapidly spread in France, Calvin however was moving step by step to his position, he wrote in his commentary to Psalms that he Ã¢â¬Å"was too obstinately devoted to the superstitions of popery to be easily extricated from so profound an abyss of mire. (Barth, 1995). One of his friends, who also shared the ideas of Reformation, was Nicolas Cop. When he became the rector of Paris University, they decided to use the chance to present their comments concerning the Reformation in front of cultured and intelligent audience. In November 1533 Cop held a speech in the Church of the Mathurins, which they gave the title Ã¢â¬Å"Christian PhilosophyÃ¢â¬ , meaning the Gospel. The relation, he built between Law and Gospel, was closely connected to the ideas of Luther. The final part of the speech was however independent and more concentrated on the one of the features of Calvinism, namely Ã¢â¬â salvation. The speech had all chances to produce a vivid impression on the audience and to attract supporters, but Cop spoke negatively about the hierologists of Sorbonne and called them Ã¢â¬Å"sophistsÃ¢â¬ . This certainly caused their indignation, they sought for support from the government, and Cop had to escape. Calvin followed him due to their known close relation, but risked to return very soon. He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get rid of his fears, that his support of Reformation ideas could be followed by imprisonment, like it was the case with some other reformers. He decided to become a wanderer in 1534, all the time changing his name. Two and a half years he was going from place to place, was imprisoned in Noyon, visited Paris, where he met Servetus for the first time. In Orleans he published his Psychopannychia, confutation of the theory about sleeping soul between death and the Last Judgment (Gordon, 2002). In 1535 Calvin visited Strasburg under the name of Basel. There he finished his Institutes of the Christian Religion, about the book he wrote: My objects were, first, to vindicate my brethren whose death was precious in the sight of the Lord; and next that, as the same cruelties might very soon after be exercised against many unhappy individuals, foreign nations might be touched with at least some compassion toward them and solicitude about them. Ã¢â¬ (Barth, 1995). After he had published this work, he worked in Ferrara in the court of Duchess Renee. A year later he met his younger brother Antoine and his half-sister Marie in Paris. He traveled with them to Strasburg, but because of the war, had to go to Geneva, planning to remain only one night there. But Farel Guillaume, one of the like-minded persons, convinced him to stay there. Two years he spent at the side of Farel, but still the city could not stand the significant reforms offered by the Reformers and on Easter Monday in 1538 they both were ordered to leave the city. Calvin traveled to Strasburg, where he became minister to the French refugees in the Church of St. Nicolas (Brady, 1994). Two years later he married Idelette de Bure, widow of Jean Stordeur of Liege, an Anabaptist, whom Calvin managed to turn into pedobabtist. They had a son, who lived only several days. Idelette de Bure died in 1549 and Calvin never married for the second time. Calvin didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the plans to return to Geneva as his financial situation was rather poor at that moment, but very soon he got the opportunity to improve his position. In Strasburg he managed to practice the reform, which he could not launch in Geneva, and his fame started to grow very quickly. He received an offer to come out with a course of cathedral lectures. In 1539 Cardinal Jacopo Sadoleto sent a letter to Geneva, asking for it to be returned to Roman obedience and Bern government gave the right to answer to Calvin. There were serious changes in the government of Geneva, and as a result the friends if Calvin won the power in the city. For the second time Calvin followed the arguments of Farel and went to Geneva. He knew perfectly, that there were a lot of his enemies, and that not everybody was ready to support him, but his faith in God was his major support. The government prepared a house for him and a corresponding salary. His work in Geneva started, the city turned into his main, but not the only one, center of activity. Geneva was a place, that gathered a lot of refugees from Holland, Italy, England, Spain, who were ready to listen and to support the ideas of Calvin. Also a number of students visited his lectures. His fame was growing, and more and more people were standing by him. At the age of fifty-five he died because of a disease. For Geneva he left one hundred and seventy dollar, faith, education and reconstructed government. Calvin chose ApostleÃ¢â¬â¢s Creed as the basis for his ideas, at the same time closely relating theology and ethics. CalvinÃ¢â¬â¢s reformation was practical, with the strongest emphasis on the doctrine of predestination; he tried to teach people of the city to refer to it as a cornerstone of the Christian faith. Opposed to lenient views concerning grace and sin, propagated by the Roman Church, the Augustinian doctrine recovered in his words. Calvin did his best to change the face of Protestantism, as he managed to address openly and directly the matters, which other reformers didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know or didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to discuss (Brady, 1994). His main target was the proper organization of the church governance and social organization of the church in the city. He was said to be the first politic leader, who was able to build the social organization based on biblical principles. He brought very significant innovation, namely by incorporating church into the government of the city (Cameron, 1991). In the middle of 1550s the structure of Geneva was changed completely in accordance to CalvinÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas. As a result Geneva became the most important center of Protestantism in Europe and attracted the persecuted refugees from other countries. The branch of CalvinÃ¢â¬â¢s reforms became the prevalent branch of Protestantism from the seventeenth century. Calvin had the same problems as Luther with Anabaptists. On the 16-17 of March in 1537 he had a public meeting with them, and using his strong argumentation disposed of their ideas, as confirmed by Council of Two Hundred. Along with a great number of supporters Calvin had his opponents as well. Calvin played a very important role in the execution of Michael Servetus Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"the Spanish physician, radical reformer (Anabaptist), and unitarian. Ã¢â¬ (Gordon, 2002). In 1531 Servetus published his ideas denouncing the Trinity, which was the key doctrine Catholics and Protestants could agree about. Three years later Calvin agreed to meet Servetus in person in Paris, Servetus however didnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear. From 1546 till 1548 they exchanged letters, trying to convince each other, but finally Calvin had to stop the correspondence, as it was growing more and more rancorous. In 1553 Servetus was sentenced to death in absentia by Inquisition in Spain for spreading heresy. Calvin provided very important evidences to support the conviction. Servetus escaped from the prison, but was again arrested in Geneva on the initiative of Calvin. This time he was sentenced to burning on a stake, which took place in 1553. Then Servetus was buried together with the copy of his last work De Trinitatis Erroribus. Servetus was the only one, who was sentenced to death for his religious beliefs during the lifetime of Calvin, and there is finally no agreement about the correctness of CalvinÃ¢â¬â¢s actions concerning this issue. Hundreds of years later modern Calvinists do not support the actions of Calvin towards Servetus. Nowadays persecution, and what is more death sentence for religious beliefs and positions, seems to be barbarous. Calvin was certainly not the only reformer. The ideas of Calvin and Farel were really close, but Farel was a missionary, a preacher and not theologian or even less a statesman. Calvin, being French would probably not be able to spread his influence so successfully either in Zurich or in Wittenberg, as Zwingli and Luther did it. Calvin was much younger than Luther and Zwingli and had an advantage of having a good foundation for spreading his ideas. He managed to build a system based on their new ideas. He proved to be better organizer and better thinker, at the same time lacking their genius and activity. His life was not as dramatic as those of Luther or Zwingli; he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t possess that genial humor or was able to raise popular enthusiasm. And still he remained the most influential Reformer of the Protestant Church. References: Barth, K. (1995). The Theology of John Calvin, tr. by G. W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans. Brady, T. (1994). Handbook of European History, 1400Ã¢â¬â1600: Late Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation. Leiden and New York. Breen, Q. (1968). John Calvin: A Study in French Humanism. Cameron, E. (1991). The European Reformation. Oxford and New York. Gordon, B. (2002). The Swiss Reformation. Manchester, U. K. , and New York. Tracy, J. (1999). Europes Reformations, 1450Ã¢â¬â1650. Lanham, Md.